Minggu, 03 Maret 2013

SUFFIXES and PREFIXES


What can you do when you run into a word that you don’t know? One thing that may help is to analyze the word, looking for groups of letters that have special meanings. A group of letters with a special meaning appearing at theend of a word is called a suffix. Here is a list of 16 important suffixes.
Suffix
Meaning
Example
-able
able to be
manageable
-ible
defensible
-al
relating to
regal
-ance
resistance
-ence
independence
-ic
heroic
-ion
state of
union
-ism
quality of
patriotism
-hood
brotherhood
-ity
legality
-ment
puzzlement
-er
one who
writer
-or
advisor
-ite
Mennonite
-y
full of
soapy
-ful
wishful
When a group of letters having a special meaning appears at the beginning of a word, we call that group of letters aprefix. Following is a list of 10 prefixes all dealing with counting.
Prefix
Meaning
Example
uni-
one
unicycle
mono-
one
monologue
auto-
self
autobiography
duo-
two
duodecimal
bi-
two
bifocal
tri-
three
tripod
penta-
five
pentagon
hexa-
six
hexadecimal
poly-
many
polygon
multi-
many
multicolored

Suffixes -
Suffixes come at the end of a word, and can change its meaning, or what type of word it is. '-er' and '-or' are the most common and change verbs to nouns to describe a person or thing that does a job. For example:
Write - writer (a person who writes)
Sail - sailor (a person who sails)
Grate - grater (a thing which grates, like a cheese-grater)
'-tion' also makes nouns from verbs:
Reduce - reduction
Pollute - pollution
Other suffixes which make nouns from verbs include '-ist', which can mean a person with certain beliefs or maybe a job or activity (racist, terrorist, physicist, pianist), and '-ism' which describes the activity or set or beliefs (racism, Buddhism). '-ment' and '-ity' also make nouns from verbs (excitement, productivity).
'-ness' makes nouns from adjectives (goodness, happiness, sadness).
'-ise' and '-ize' make verbs from adjectives (modernise).
There are lots of suffixes which make adjectives, here are a few:
'-ful' - forgetful
'-ous' - furious
'-able' / '-ible' - edible, justifiable
'-less' - useless
Learning which suffixes make which types of words can really help to improve your vocabulary. The best idea is to 'build' words that you have learned, by checking in the dictionary and making a note of all the suffixes that can be added to it to change it into a different type of word.
Prefixes -
Prefixes do a completely different job! They come at the beginning of a word and give adjectives a negative meaning. They also sometimes make opposites of verbs. Here are some examples:
'Un-' - uncomfortable
'In-' - inconvenient
'Dis-' - dissimilar
I'm afraid you just have to learn which prefixes go with which words, but as you learn more you will start to get a feeling for what sounds right. For example, do you think that the correct prefix for 'happy' is 'un-', 'in-' or 'dis-'? It's 'un-' of course, unhappy sounds correct, but inhappy or dishappy sounds wrong.
There are a couple of rules to help though:
Words which start with 'm' or 'p' take the prefix 'im-' (impatient)
Words which start with 'r' take 'ir-' (irresponsible)
Words which start with 'l' take 'il-' (illegitimate)

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